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The Ripple Effect: How Community Violence Takes a Toll on Mental Well-being

Updated: Jan 22


Paula Gonzalez (MSW LSW), Executive Clinical Coordinator, Preventive Measures Foundation

Paula Gonzalez, Executive Clinical Coordinator for The Preventive Measures Foundation, sheds light on the impact community violence has on all of us.


Recently, WFMZ's Jaciel Cordoba and Preventive Measures’ Paula Gonzalez discussed the mental health impact crime has on the non-victim as “The Ripple Effect” of community violence impacts not only the immediate victims but also those indirectly exposed to the violence. “The Ripple Effect” refers to the impact of an event that extends beyond its initial occurrence, creating a series of ‘after-effects’ on a broader scope. Individuals exposed to violence may experience issues that play a direct impact on their mental health including:

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Direct witness or survivors of violence can develop PTSD, leading to debilitating symptoms that interfere with daily life.

  • Anxiety and Depression: Communities plagued by violence breed chronic anxiety and depression due to the constant fear and uncertainty that residents experience.

  • Survivor's Guilt: Those who survive violent incidents may suffer from feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and internal turmoil.





  • Desensitization to Violence: Frequent exposure to violence can lead to desensitization, eroding empathy and contributing to a more violent culture.

  • Substance Abuse: As a coping mechanism, individuals may turn to substance abuse to deal with the trauma and stress caused by community violence.

  • Impaired Social Functioning: Violence disrupts social networks, leading to isolation, loneliness, and reduced community cohesion.

As Paula Gonzalez (MSW LSW), Executive Clinical Coordinator, Preventive Measures Foundation shares, "We must pay attention to the profound impact violence and its after-effects can have on mental well-being, not just for survivors but for entire communities and encourage those dealing with the effects to seek support to learn how to cope with these feelings. Children exposed to community violence are particularly vulnerable. Their development may be stunted, academic performance impaired, and the risk of mental health disorders heightened.”

Paula notes the spread of violence and the effects on the community through exposure. “Victims turned perpetrators can potentially feed the cycle. Research shows that community violence directly correlates with economic losses – with increased healthcare costs, reduced productivity, and income loss due to injuries and mental health issues. Additionally, violence erodes trust, hindering safety and community cohesion. These facets are critical to rebuilding after exposure.” Moreover, Paula recommends specific community objectives to address the Ripple Effect with a multifaceted approach to healing:

  • Access to Mental Health Services: Communities must have accessible mental health resources to support those affected by violence.

  • Trauma-Informed Interventions: Trauma-informed care should be integrated into healthcare, education, and community programs.

  • Community Engagement: Building strong community networks fosters resilience and support, countering the isolating effects of violence.

  • Violence Prevention Initiatives: Efforts should focus on breaking the cycle of violence through education, mentorship, and targeted programs.



  • Support for Professionals: First responders, healthcare professionals, and others exposed to vicarious trauma need proper debriefing, counseling, and self-care strategies.

Vicarious Trauma: The Hidden Toll: Vicarious trauma, also known as “secondary trauma” or “compassion fatigue”, is a psychological and emotional response that occurs when individuals repeatedly and empathetically engage with the traumatic experiences of others. Beyond direct victims, individuals indirectly exposed to violence suffer from vicarious trauma and can experience a myriad of issues:

  • Repeated Exposure: Professionals often exposed to trauma endure cumulative emotional strain.

  • Empathy and Identification: Compassion can lead to deep emotional identification with the pain of others.

  • Helplessness and Frustration: Being unable to prevent violence can cause feelings of powerlessness.

  • Intrusive Thoughts: Witnessing violence can lead to distressing intrusive thoughts.

  • Hypervigilance: Exposure to trauma can lead to a constant state of alertness.

  • Boundary Confusion: Establishing emotional boundaries is challenging for those supporting survivors.

  • Physical and Emotional Exhaustion: Caring for survivors can lead to burnout and reduced coping capacity.

  • Isolation and Withdrawal: Coping mechanisms may lead to social withdrawal and isolation.

  • Negative Worldview: Prolonged exposure to violence can foster a pessimistic outlook.

Paula suggests solutions to help mitigate the impact of vicarious trauma. “Boosting resilience against vicarious trauma could include regular debriefings and counseling to offer emotional processing, trauma-informed training to equip professionals to provide care while safeguarding well-being and organizations providing and cultivating self-care and on-going emotional support. The mental well-being of survivors, witnesses, and those indirectly exposed requires comprehensive strategies that prioritize mental health support, trauma-informed care, and fostering strong, resilient communities. By acknowledging the hidden toll of vicarious trauma and promoting self-care, we can pave the way towards healing. Have you experienced a devastating experience and had to deal with the “after-effect”? Share your testimony and reach out to Preventive Measures for support with your healing.

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